I just sent out the RMATA Newsletter Issue #5 to everyone that was on my list. About 25 of those names bounced back as undeliverable but if you haven't received one and were supposed to or if you want to be added to the newsletter list please send an email to: firstname.lastname@example.org
The newsletters will also now be sent out on a monthly basis. The groundfight.com newsletters are now called the RMATA newsletters for those of you who also were receiving those and are wondering where they went. It is now a joint effort newsletter as groundfight.com is also an RMATA school so we just morphed them into one.
I also encourage anyone looking to contribute to the newsletters via articles, techniques, Important announcements, etc. to do so as this is a RMATA community newsletter, thanks!
Post by BillCogswell on May 14, 2006 10:42:27 GMT -5
Good to see you around keysersoze!
My shoulder unfortunately is as good as it is going to get according to my Dr. The recovery didn't go near as well as I wanted or expected it to and I have limited mobility in my left shoulder now that apparently will never get better. I have regained pressing strength almost to normal but only in a linear fashion (DB or bench presses for example). I can press overhead no problem either however I cannot bend my left arm behind my back as in a Kimura or Top Wristlock. I still have pain while trying to sleep and doing simple things. I even tried Active Release Treatments with minimal results as a last ditch effort. Unfortunately this shoulder has had 3 pretty serious surgeries (Rotator Cuff, 2 Labrum complete repairs including 10 tacks holding it together now, tendon repairs, etc.) and it will never be the same.
Thanks for asking and I hope you are doing well! Bill
Post by BillCogswell on Mar 14, 2006 13:20:15 GMT -5
Here in VA Beach the Bail Bonds and Fugitive Recovery business is quite plentiful. I am considering possibly going into that line of work and was wondering what others thought of this business in general. Do we have any recovery agents on the board? Keep in mind, it isn't like what you see on "Dog the Bounty Hunter", that represents about 5% of your actual work, perhaps less. It's the detective work and tracking that catches my interest but anyway, what say you?
Expect this story (via Livedoor News) to pick up some attention in Japan. A 24-year old man in Kawasaki city was arrested for killing his 22-year old wife after applying an arm-lock on her. According to police statements, the man was emulating some of his favorite MMA moves that he saw from K-1 and PRIDE. When he applied the armlock on his wife, it fratured bones and caused muscle damage in her left shoulder. The incident took place on 2/6. Instead of allowing the wife to see medical care, the husband prohibited her from going to the hospital and she died from shock (caused by blood vessel damage from blood poisoning/infection).
The article states that the wife tried to get help (and even tried to get medicine at a local drugstore), but that she died on 2/17 and a “119″ (ambulance) was called at 7:30 PM. She died 11 days later after the incident took place.
A family member (father of the husband) is quoted as saying that there were domestic disputes between the two and that the man often used MMA moves in confrontations because he was a martial arts enthusiast.
Post by BillCogswell on Dec 19, 2005 7:38:02 GMT -5
Good story Vince and I hope it never happens again. That's the reason I wouldn't hit a women unless it became a very serious possibly life threatening situation. Most witnesses would not have heard any initial "talks" between you and the attacker and would most likely only "see" a big man hitting a women. They automatically look at that as wrong regardless of what happened prior. And the fact that they were black, makes things even worse as nowadays the race card is pulled on almost every situation. (sad but true)
Post by BillCogswell on Dec 18, 2005 19:42:56 GMT -5
The only force I would use would possibly be to control the attacking women. I would actually put up with a couple of shots but if she was intent on not stopping then I would look to control her via the usual standing control methods such as wristlock control, tie up her arms (chicken wings, etc.)and get behind her, etc.
Now if the attacker or two attackers (women in this example) were also intent on attacking my wife I would have to 'up' the amount of force to insure their intentions were not met. I would look to put one on the ground and control the other until my wife (or whomever was with me)were able to get to a safe location and call for help. If need be I would keep one on the ground (stand on her if I had to ;D) while defending and looking to control the second women. Possibly even just keep putting them to the ground one at a time if need be if they continued to attack. I just don't think I have it in me to strike a women full force unless a weapon became involved and it was obvious I had no choice.
Now, one scenario that may cause me to strike a women would be if she attacked one of my children. Now the stakes are raised but, this isn't the case with this example.
Post by BillCogswell on Dec 17, 2005 22:38:25 GMT -5
Hmmm, great topic and question. If the car continued following me I would drive towards a very crowded area or Police station as was mentioned. If I didn't realize the car was following me until I had parked and the women got out I would begin apologizing loudly (so she hears me before getting crazy) before she headed toward me. If she continued towards me I would have to think about getting into a non violent but "ready" protective posture before she reached within arms length, just in case. I think I would try my best to continue saying I was sorry but move away from the women and towards the store. If the worst happens and she swings at me I protect myself but do not return any force, unless absolutely necessary (she has pulled a weapon and is intent on using it). Tough call with this one but protecting the person I am with has got to me #1, so avoidance is key.
By the way, how is it a 300 and 400lb. woman can get that worked up?
Post by BillCogswell on Jul 21, 2006 16:20:23 GMT -5
Disarms can get you killed
Before I explain to you the survival methods that I teach, let me first say that NO student, out of literally thousands, has ever disarmed me in one of these full speed, full contact attacks. Yes, there were a few who tried, but not one survived. The closest that anyone came to disarming me was this past Spring when a huge Marine grabbed a hold of my weapon hand like a vice grip, and immobilized it. He thought he had me until I used my free hand to pull his ASP (expandable baton) from his gun belt and knocked him upside his head with it a few times; gently of course. It's not just because I'm "Mr. Hot Shot instructor with beaucoup experience" that prevents people from disarming me. The results are the same even when I put inexperienced students in to play the role of the attacker. The point is this: if these men and women, who each have actual street or jail fighting experience (and who are very dedicated to their training and hate losing), can't disarm a realistic knife attack in training (with a rubber knife no less), then what makes you think you can? The odds are clearly stacked against you.
A disarm maneuver should only be considered as a last resort. It should never be your first technique, unless you are really lucky. I'm not just saying this because of my observation of countless students. I know this to be true from the two times I was actually attacked by subjects with knives; once in the US Army, and once while on police patrol. In both of these incidents I was unable to disarm the attackers. The first time I had no choice but to grab onto the guys weapon hand, and it almost cost me a Bowie blade in the Adam's apple. The second time I simply had no opportunity at all to disarm the suspect. It came in too fast, and the suicidal man did not extend his arm out like you get in self-defense courses. All I had coming my way was a flicker of a shiny kitchen knife moving straight down toward my chest. I did the only thing my instincts told me to do - jump back and get out of the way; crashing right into this guy's bedroom dresser behind me. Fortunately, I wasn't even scratched in either incident.
Knife Evasion Exercise
Although not quite as glamorous or as action packed as disarm techniques, the first counter move that you should employ in a surprise edged weapons attack will be to evade the knife. To best learn how this is done I created the Knife Evasion Exercise several years ago. As the name implies, your intentions are to avoid this gruesome weapon altogether. The further you can get away from it, the better off you are (law enforcement officers need a minimum of 10 feet just to get the weapon out of the holster, and another 5 feet to take a shot). Of course, when performing this exercise, safety is paramount. Both the trainer and the trainee must wear wrap-around eye protection; since even rubber or plastic training knives can damage the eyes. I know that may schools train with wooden or non-pointed, non-cutting metal training knives, which is good, but they should not be used in this exercise, because this exercise is to be done at full speed, and with full contact (making the blade bend back).
When you are suddenly attacked by a suspect wielding a knife (which hand they have the weapon in, or which grip they use is irrelevant), the first thing you want to do is back off and bring both of your hands directly in front of you to guard your center line (the imaginary line which runs down the center of the body from the top of the head to the groin). Your arms should be extended out in front of you, and your elbows slightly bent. In a real fight, so what if your hands and arms get cut (known as "defensive wounds"), you can always get sewn up in the hospital after the fight is over. In a knife fight YOU WILL GET CUT. However, you can't afford to take any slashes or stabs to the torso (head, neck, chest, and back). Tip penetration over 4 centimeters (approximately 3/4"), although not always fatal, can induce instantaneous shock that can weaken you, or even render you unconscious.
The problem with most law enforcement officers (who have little or no training in edged weapons), is that the first thing they go for, when attacked with a knife at close range, is their sidearm. I've heard many officers joke; "If someone pulls a knife on me I'll just shoot them. Don't come to a gunfight with a knife, ha! ha!" The facts tell a different story. At the last police department I worked, we had an officer stabbed in the arm with a screwdriver by an auto theft suspect about a year and a half ago. The officer was unable to unholster his weapon at the moment of the a*sault. Afterward, I offered to train my fellow officers (on my own time and at my own expense) how to survive edged weapons incidents such as these. The Training Bureau didn't think that the training was needed, even after the stabbing incident and declined my offer. It is sad that I have to prove time and time again that officers are shredded if their first move is to attempt to get their guns out of their holsters. However, after the demonstration these same officers become firm believers that a knife can win at a gunfight.
The key to surviving an edged weapons attack is to get distance between yourself and the knife. You do this by aggressively slapping the incoming weapon away with both hands, and to side step in order to get your body out of the line of attack. It's harder for the attacker to move laterally, than to pursue you straight back. If do have to retreat backwards, don't go too far without side stepping or the attacker will easily over run you.
Once you have put some space between you and the attacker - and you still find that you can't unholster your gun or get to another type of weapon - then strike the attacker with a rapid kick to the knee, or eye poke with a finger. If, after this, you still can't get your weapon out, get your hands back in front of your centerline and go through another cycle. In a situation where you have no weapons at all, immediately grab a handy improvised weapon such as dirt, a lamp, a jacket, etc. Remember, the longer the fight goes on, the smaller your chances of survival. Few people can survive more than 10 seconds without launching a damaging counter attack or successfully running away. That's why knife fights are so scary.
The Last Resort
Although disarming an attacker with an edged weapon should be your last resort, you still must master disarming techniques. The general rule of thumb when employing these techniques is, IF YOU CAN'T DISARM THE ATTACKER IN THREE MOVES, THEN DON'T TRY IT. Your first move will be blocking the weapons arm or hand. Your second move will be locking up, or redirecting, the weapons arm or hand. And, your third move will be a disabling strike. Any more than three moves, and the technique gets too complicated. The more complicated a move, the greater chances of failure.
Whatever disarming techniques you practice, you should be able to perform it at full speed, and at full contact. Obviously, you'll want to take it slow when first learning a technique, then gradually build up the speed and power. Once you're comfortable with the technique, your trainer should vary the angles of attack slightly. To have an attacker come at you at the exact same angle each time is not realistic! You should be able to adapt to any variation of the angle, and perform the technique successfully whether the trainer is right handed or left, ice pick grip or fist grip, or whether the weapons arm is extended or not.
A good disarming program will also include attacks from all sides (front, back, and sides - including the angles in between), in addition to protecting yourself while on the ground (ground fighting).
Learning individual disarm techniques has little value unless they are tested in a realistic way. That's why I created the Disarm Drill for my students. Here's how you do it.
Place an unarmed student (trainee) in a fighting stance with their eyes closed. Have an armed trainer (armed with a rubber knife) move into a position anywhere around the student (360 degrees). I usually clap my hands and make a lot of noise as the trainer gets into position, so that the trainee cannot hear where the trainer stops. Then, on the command of "Go!" the trainee opens his or her eyes. The trainer, upon hearing this same command, launches their attack on the trainee at close range. The trainee only has a split second to orient themselves to the attacker and attempt the disarm. As you might expect, there is no time to think - only react. Whether the initial move is effective or not, I tell my students to go all the way with their gut instinct, and try something, anything, until the weapon is secured. The trainee goes through this routine several times, and then the roles are reversed.
The more the Disarm Drill is practiced, the faster the students' reactions become, and the less mistakes are repeated. Of course, the techniques never come out quite as "clean" as when they are practiced step-by-step. That's okay. It doesn't have to look good; it just has to work."
Post by BillCogswell on Jul 21, 2006 16:15:48 GMT -5
"Edged Weapons Defense" by Jim Wagner
"Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in edged weapons: there are new magazines devoted entirely to the subject, an increase in articles, new instructional videos on the market, and a growing number of courses specializing in knife fighting. Yet, despite the growing popularity, many edged weapons programs are deficient in the full tactical spectrum. This deficiency is not merely a result of the expanding number of practitioners, or new "expert" instructors trying to meet the demand, but errant training methods and inferior techniques is a reoccurring theme throughout human history, as we shall soon discover. In this article I will unveil some little known facts which are rarely taught in edged weapons programs, and in so doing, it will help improve your own skills and training methods.
Human beings, by nature, are reluctant to pierce the body of another in combat. This "psychological block" in a self-defense situation can be disastrous. The ancient Romans were aware of this reluctance, and was well documented by the Roman historian Vegetius. Early on in the Empire's history it was observed that most of the soldiers engaging in close quarters battle were slashing with their short swords, rather than thrusting. Enemy soldiers were being wounded, but not "stopped." Cuts seldom kill, but penetrating thrusts are often fatal. The Romans began an aggressive training program emphasizing a two-inch thrusting technique. The re-education paid off, and the Roman army's military exploits are now legendary.
As is often the case in history, certain truths must be rediscovered. The advantage of thrusting over slashing had to, once again, be learned the hard way. Historians of the American Civil War, World War I, and other conflicts where bayonet charges were ordered, found that the men charged at the enemy well enough, intending to run their targets through, but suddenly chose to use their rifles like clubs at the last moment once they came face-to-face with the enemy. Again, there is something in our nature that prefers to swing away at our opponent, rather than go for the immediate fatal blow.
Modern armies throughout the world still emphasize stabbing over slashing, and it is a part of every combat soldier's basic training. In the United States Marine Corps there is a Recon running cadence song that goes, "A grease gun (a*sault rifle) and K-bar (USMC combat knife) by my side, these are tools that make men die. A hookin' and a jabbin', a stickin' and a stabbin'..." Even in the modern sport of fencing, born out of ancient warfare training, the rules clearly state in foil, epee and saber fencing that a valid "hit" is a thrust to the torso area since such a strike is likely to be fatal. Invalid targets are the arms, legs, and face since theoretically they are wounding areas only. In 1787 fencing master Domenico Angelo (considered the first instructor of modern fencing) wrote, "You cannot practice the thrust too much, it being the most essential and the most superior technique that is made in fencing."
Up Close and Personal
Why do human beings find it difficult to stab someone? One reason may be that stabbing is up close and personal. Lieutenant Colonel Dave Grossman, author of the book On Killing, called it, "...intimate brutality." In modern Filipino Kali one is taught that the weapon, be it a stick or blade, is an "extension" of the hand. Indeed, the ancient Japanese samurai (bushi) went even further, believing their swords as "symbols of their souls."
In self-defense situation, where lethal force would be justified, most people still find it hard to impale the attacker. Even though more people carry knives than guns, guns are stilled the preferred method of self-defense. Yet, both weapons are just as lethal. Guns can intimidate or injure from a distance, whereas knives must be employed at close range in order to be effective. In the 1860s French military analyst Ardant du Picq hit it right on the head when he wrote, "To fight from a distance is instinctive in man. From the first day, he has worked to this end, and he continues to do so." This prophetic truth is evident with today's Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, and the rapid expansion of the "less-lethal" industry which supplies law enforcement with products such as pepper spray, bean bag projectiles, sting balls, nets, incapacitating foams, etc. Gadgets spring up everyday that are designed to subdue violent suspects "at a distance." Although these products have their proper place and time, the growing trend within law enforcement, and the military, is to rely too heavily upon them, to the point where training programs such as Combatives (hand-to-hand defensive tactics) are neglected, if not discarded all together. Worse of all, edged weapons defense programs are virtually non-existent in law enforcement, and slowly being phased out in the US Armed Forces (disturbingly, the US Marines have just dropped their pugil stick training due to potential "liabilities". Pugil sticks are wooden sticks padded in the middle and at each end to simulated hand-to-hand combat with an a*sault rifle/bayonet. Participants wear football style helmets and padded gloves).
The fact that edged weapons can be "too intimate" for some is evident from case studies conducted by the FBI on psychopathic killers. Serial killers who use knives to do their inhumane deeds view their weapon as a phallic (male genital) symbol, which can give as much satisfaction to the killer when it penetrates their victim as a sexual act would. That's why some bodies are found with a ridiculous number of puncture wounds. It's not the result of "over kill," but a deliberate act of gratification (the combination of power and sex). Fortunately, the percentage of these types of people running around is extremely low. It is believed that within the world's armies two percent have "psychopathic tendencies;" these people are referred to as "natural soldiers." I often tell my law enforcement and military students, "If someone attacks you with a knife, you are dealing with someone who is not afraid of combat, and has the psychological mindset to back it up." (for those law enforcement officers reading this, remember that the next time you take a knife off of somebody during a pat down. "Those who carry, you they'll bury.")
For the average person, knowing that there is a natural resistance to stabbing is the first step in overcoming the "problem." Greater effectiveness in self-defense situations can be achieved through proper training. One exercise that I have my students perform is an exercise which I call the "Multiple Stabbing Exercise." Student A is armed with a rubber training knife. Student B holds a kicking shield in an upright position. Upon command, Student A "pumps" the knife into the shield without stopping, pushing Student B backward (the manifestation of aggression and dominance). Student B slowly walks back absorbing the blows with the shield. As Student A has Student B "on the run," Student A continues to thrust and retract the training knife, all the meanwhile giving a fierce "war cry." The students will move both forward and backward (tactical retreat) covering a total distance of 30 - 40 yards. Not only does this exercise instill the idea of multiple thrusting moves, but it also helps to develop endurance and the "warrior spirit."
Another exercise (one that best simulates combat) is called the "Fatal Fight Exercise." As the name implies, it teaches the importance of fatal target areas, or in cop speak, "center ma*s" (when I use the term "fatal," the intent is not to "kill," but to "stop" the aggressor). Two students are each armed with rubber training knives (knife-to-knife fight), and wearing wrap-around eye protection. The goal is to "fatally" strike the opponent with a thrust to the torso area, or inflict a slash to the jugular of the neck (the one slash which is fatal). When the command to start is given, the students must defend themselves from each other; freestyle. In order for a student to "win," the student must successfully thrust the weapon into the opponent's torso, making the rubber blade bend. Upon retraction of the weapon, the student must get out of the "danger zone" before becoming a casualty himself; in other words, "a mutual kill" will eliminate both fighters. If a student loses his or her fight, or they both lose due to a mutual kill, I always punish the looser(s). Since my students are strictly law enforcement, corrections, and military personnel, losing is unacceptable. Losing in the streets, jails, or battlefield means losing your life. Thus, I have the losers go to the left side of the room (nicked named, "The Side of the Dead"), where they are required to do selected tortuous strength exercises. Once punished, they are "resurrected" and able to rejoin the cla*s.
When my students do the Fatal Fight Exercise I never stop the fight when a fatal blow occurs. I let the students continue to fight approximately 5 seconds longer after I see a fatal blow. I do this for three reasons:
Reason One: if you stop students every time there is a fatal blow they will also end up doing the same thing in a real life situation; "you fight like you train." You don't ever want to stop and give up in a real encounter, and you learn this only through proper training. Even if you think that you may be mortally wounded, in pain or frightened, you never stop. A strike to a fatal area does not mean that it will be fatal. However, giving up may very well turn fatal. If while in training, you stop every time you're on the losing end, then the same may happen in a real encounter.
If your attacker sees you hesitate, stop, or give up, another natural human phenomena kicks in called the "chase instinct." It is the instinct to take down anyone who runs. A good example of this is when a mean dog threatens you. Most of the time you can intimidate the animal and it will back down. Start running, and even the smallest dog will chase you. The same holds true for humans. It's where we get the term "back stabber." Most killing done on ancient battlefields occurred while the enemy was in retreat (a sure sign of weakness and defeat). The Spartans knew this, and their motto was, "If not victorious, return on your shield (in other words, your shield was to be used as a stretcher to carry your body back home, implying: never turn your back on the enemy). The Macedonian general Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) also believed in pushing forward at all cost, and he only lost approximately 700 of his men to the sword when conquering the known world.
Reason Two. Immediately stopping a fight after "scoring a point" gives the student a false sense of security leading them to believe that "it is all over" just because they got a good shot in. This, of course, is the danger of point sparring practiced in many martial arts schools and tournaments. Although mentally the participants understand that a match is not a real fight, point sparring, or any kind of training for that matter, conditions both the mind and body; referred to as "muscle memory" in the law enforcement world. Again, "you do, as you train."
A good example of muscle memory is in firearms training conducted by soldiers and law enforcement officers. They are always taught to fire multiple rounds into "the bad guy" during a firefight. Hitting a person with one bullet does not always "stop" the suspect. Multiple rounds at center ma*s is a well-accepted doctrine, and one I fully support. Of course, the question inevitably always comes up after a police shooting, "Why did the police have to fire so many rounds?" as if the police had gone on a wild shooting spree. The simple reason is to guarantee the officer's survival, and the only way you're going to guarantee that is by "maximum trauma" to the body.
Now, if a bullet sometimes fails to stop an attacker, so can a single stab wound in a self-defense situation. Therefore, students who train with edged weapons must think in terms of multiple strikes, rather than singular.
Reason Three. In a real life situation an attacker is still capable of fighting even after sustaining fatal wounds. For example, if the jugular (two large veins in the neck) were to be severed, the attacker may still have 5 seconds or more of blood supply to the brain, and keep attacking; just enough time to seriously injure you or take your life. The average knife fight is over in 5 seconds once the attack is launched. Having been attacked twice at knifepoint, watching one guy stab himself in a hostage situation, and having responded to the aftermath of a few stabbings while on duty, I know this fact to be true - knife fights are over in seconds. Therefore, stopping a training match immediately after a fatal blow would negatively condition the fighter. Anyone who mortally wounds another must be prepared for the possibility of an extended fight. It's never over until the attacker is rendered unable to fight.
If you are attacked by someone with a knife, it is most likely that you will not perceive the threat until the attacker is right on top of you, and for the first few vital seconds of the fight you will be unarmed. Even if you are a law enforcement officer, it is unlikely that you'll have your weapon in hand at the moment of attack since most officer related stabbings occur during a pat-down, hand cuffing, or in custody (the booking cage, jail or prison corridor, during transportation, etc.). In the field of Corrections (work related to prisoners) they refer to stabbings as getting "shanked" (a term derived from prisoners using improvised weapons called "shanks").
Distance is the key to survival. Just about every law enforcement officer in North America knows that 21 feet is the minimum safe reactionary distance you want to be when dealing with a subject armed with an edge weapon. A determined suspect can travel this distance in 1.5 seconds. This rule, known as the Tueller Rule has been ingrained in officers' minds for years through the popular training videotape Surviving Edged Weapons by Calibre Press (restricted to law enforcement only – http://www.calibrepress.com). At 21 feet, the officer has time to get his gun out and fire two rounds. Yet, distance is a luxury that few victims of knife fights ever receive.
Due to the extreme close range, the average edged weapons fight lasts no more than five seconds. Within these fleeting seconds serious bodily injury or death is inflicted. The most critical stage of the fight, and the one which generally determines the outcome of the conflict, hinges on your very first reaction. If your first move is to try to disarm the suspect, or to move in on him (as many self-defense courses teach) your chances of survival are greatly reduced.
Lessons from the experts
I instruct a course called Edged Weapons Defense that is restricted to law enforcement and US military personnel only. Throughout the years I've had the privilege of training thousands of dedicated officers, agents and deputies: the Los Angeles Sheriff's Department, DEA, FBI SWAT, US Marines & US Navy PMO, US Army Special Forces, INS, US Border Patrol, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Grupo Especial (Mexico), US Marshals, US Coast Guard, and the list goes on. Great! So, what? Simply this: at the very beginning of each cla*s I have my students wear their gun belt with their actual duty weapons holstered (after a complete safety check by the RSO- Range Safety Officer). I then stand in front of them at "interrogation distance" (approximately 6 - 8 feet away), and I have my hands in my pockets or to the sides. I tell the student in front of me, "I have a concealed rubber knife on me, and I will attack you with it sometime during your contact (a term which can mean anything from talking, to laying hands on the suspect) with me." I then say, "You do whatever you have to do in order to survive. You can hit me, kick me, push me away or shoot me with your gun if you like. I don't care. Just do what you have to, to survive." Obviously the student has a tremendous tactical advantage because they know what's coming. On the streets you never know what someone is going to do.
The student, with a ready hand on the grip of his or her gun, starts to interrogate me (I pretend to be someone walking near a closed business looking somewhat suspicious). The officer, or military police, will approach me and start asking me questions, just as they would do if they were really on duty. They ask me the standard questions, "Who are you?" "What are you doing here?" "May I see your I.D.?" Then suddenly, I pull the knife from my pocket or the small of my back and go for a vital area such as the chest, sides, or throat. The results are ugly. 90% of the students are critically injured in less than 5 seconds unable to even unholster their weapon. 9% are able to draw their weapon and get off a round, but are wounded with the blade at the same moment of discharge (which we call a "mutual kill"). Only 1% are able to survive the encounter and "neutralize" the suspect (me), with an evading maneuver and a lethal shot. The statistics are even worse for those who had no firearm, such as Corrections personnel. The casualties for Corrections personnel are 100% when going through this exercise for the first time. For these students I simulate a jail/prison type of scenario. However, the tables are turned by the end of my one-day training. More than two thirds of the students are able to survive the same brutal attack without sustaining life-threatening wounds.